Switzerland recently decided to facilitate the financing activities of groups operating in or out of Switzerland by easing some restrictions under the Withholding Tax Ordinance. The amendment of the ordinance is meant to strengthen the establishment of headquarter activities with further central corporate functions, as well as treasury activities, particularly those performed outside Switzerland.
Following the introduction of Ordinance 2016-1635 and Decree 2017-1094, non-listed companies which previously were not required to disclose the identity of their shareholders and maintained confidentiality through shareholders' agreements must now disclose their beneficial owners not only when a company is set up, but also on a continuous basis. However, the definition of a 'beneficial owner' remains unclear.
Regulatory approval plays an important role in the transfer of assets or lines of business. In general, where permits are issued in consideration of assets being sold, the transfer will entail a new authorisation procedure to be undertaken by investors. This is also the case for environmental authorisation; however, as local authorities do not consistently deal with the applicability of the various regulations in this regard, mitigating potential hurdles will generally require coordination with the respective authorities involved.
The Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy recently published a green paper setting out the government's proposals to reform and strengthen its powers to scrutinise investments in critical businesses and infrastructure which could provide opportunities for foreign investors to "undertake espionage, sabotage or exert inappropriate leverage". The proposals aim to ensure that any national security issues can be considered in a clear, consistent and proportionate way.
The European Union has proposed a new EU framework for screening foreign investment that raises security and public order concerns for the European Union and its member states. The commission intends to launch, and possibly complete, the proposed framework by the end of 2018. Opposition by several member states means that it is unclear whether the proposal will be approved by the Council of the European Union.
Shareholder activism has grown in popularity in recent decades due to leading law firms specialising in the implementation of available shareholder activism strategies, and the role of hedge funds and related services constitutes a significant niche in the legal services market. Under Polish legislation, various forms of shareholder activism can be applied.
Following the economic crisis, Cyprus witnessed the merging of several cooperative societies, mainly cooperative credit institutions. These mergers reduced the number of cooperative credit institutions from over 300 to just 18. However, in July 2017 a second merger took place which saw the 18 institutions merged into a single entity. Although cooperative societies are limited liability companies, the procedure that must be followed for merging such companies varies significantly.
The foreign investment rules provided under the Monetary and Financial Code were recently amended. M&A practitioners have welcomed the reform of the foreign investment rules, as it reduces the paperwork for foreign investments not falling within the scope of the prior authorisation regime. In addition, this reform has removed a cumbersome administrative procedure considered redundant.
As a result of the economy experiencing an upswing over the past year, there was an increase in transactions and deal values in the first half of 2017. Further, because the United Arab Emirates put its plans to diversify its economy away from a dependency on oil into action, M&A activity outside the oil sector has been bolstered. In particular, there has been growth in the healthcare, education and retail sectors.
By assumption, the process of merging capital companies is advantageous from the point of view of the merging companies and their shareholders. However, sometimes a shareholder may receive fewer shares in the acquiring company than he or she should have. In such a context, the question that arises is whether the protection of shareholders' interests against an unfavourable share exchange rate is possible under Polish law and, if so, how it can be accomplished.
UK groups with members in at least two member states of the European Economic Area can use Societas Europaea or cross-border mergers to redomicile to another European jurisdiction. Both regimes may be helpful to a group looking to redomicile entities to other parts of Europe in the context of Brexit, although both have been the subject of recent judicial decisions regarding the form of transactions which are considered permissible.
In order to revolutionise its economy, Nigeria must formulate policies dedicated to industrial growth, as such growth can attract foreign investment. It is hoped that the existing wave of industrialisation in Nigeria will be accompanied by a political will to implement clearly defined policies to industrialise the country and increase the number of M&A transactions.
The EU Directive on Cross-Border Mergers of Limited Liability Companies, implemented by the Companies (Cross-Border Mergers) Regulations 2007 (as amended), has proven to be a popular means of reorganising European group structures and has been occasionally used in arm's-length cross-border transactions. However, recent transactions have tested the boundaries of the sorts of structure that may be permitted under the regulations, which could reduce the popularity of the procedure.
A cross-border merger is a transaction involving a true merger of European entities, in which one or more of the participants ceases to exist. In the United Kingdom, cross-border mergers are governed by the Companies (Cross-Border Mergers) Regulations 2007. The procedure has been frequently implemented in connection with solvent reorganisations of group structures. Arm's-length cross-border transactions involving UK companies have also incorporated cross-border mergers.
To a large extent, the security and success of a transaction depends on the correct execution of the process preceding its finalisation. At the pre-contractual stage, a non-disclosure agreement (NDA) is the first agreement that regulates the mutual relationships of the parties involved in the negotiations. Concluding an NDA in Poland is of substantial significance as, in the case of a violation, it enables a party to seek damages to the fullest extent possible.
In a recent case regarding the takeover of Actelion by Johnson & Johnson, the Takeover Board expanded its case law on the permissibility of conditions in public takeover offers. In this case, the Takeover Board had to assess whether the implementation of a demerger of a business division from the target constituted a permissible condition within a public offer.
In November 2016 the Delaware Court of Chancery issued an opinion that provides additional guidance on how the inclusion of certain key provisions in a purchase agreement can protect a seller against an extra-contractual fraud claim asserted by a buyer in connection with an acquisition transaction. Although the court has noted in the past that there are "no magic words", this case provides helpful guidance on how to minimise the risk of extra-contractual fraud claims in the context of a sale transaction.
The Delaware Court of Chancery recently provided new guidance on a stockholder's standing to bring fiduciary duty claims following a freeze-out merger that forced the stockholder to sell its shares. The case involved a complex series of transactions in which General Electric Company (GE) merged with a subsidiary, General Electric Capital Corporation (GECC). As a result of the merger, holders of GECC preferred stock received new shares of GE preferred stock, which were allegedly worth less.
The company merger procedure is regulated by the Commercial Companies Code, which provides for the adoption of shareholder resolutions during company mergers. Similar to other shareholder resolutions during general meetings, the resolution may be challenged according to the principles set out in the code. However, certain exceptions to the general principles apply.
The Delaware Court of Chancery has applied the standard established in In re MFW Shareholders Litigation and Kahn v M & F Worldwide Corporation in rejecting a challenge to a controlling stockholder's buyout of the remaining shares of Books-A-Million, Inc from minority stockholders. The court confirmed the framework to be followed by Delaware companies and controlling stockholders that seek to avoid the 'entire fairness' standard of review.