The Genoa Court of Appeal recently issued its decision in Redwood, which concerned the liability of classification societies. The appeal court quashed the first-instance decision, which had found Lloyd's Register liable for damages suffered by the time charterers of the vessel Redwood. The decision will undoubtedly attract the attention of maritime lawyers around the world.
A Tribunal of Genoa decision has affirmed that damage claims against carriers for full liability must prove not only that the carrier's behaviour had been grossly negligent, but also that the carrier or its agents acted recklessly and foresaw that damage would result from their act or omission.
A judgment issued by the Court of Ravenna poses complex legal questions about the application of the concept of 'undue hardship' to charterparties and the obligation to renegotiate. It also raises significant problems about the relationship between English and Italian jurisdiction.
The interpretation of Article 3(4) of the Brussels Convention 1952 has given rise to much debate in the convention's contracting states. In Italy, a number of arrests have been granted in respect of claims against a demise charterer or a time charterer, even where the maritime claim is not secured by a maritime lien on the vessel. A decision of the Court of Genoa on this issue seems certain to provoke further debate.
Two decisions represent the Italian courts' only interpretations of the wording of the Institute Classification Clause. The notion that the cargo classification clause requires full classification of a vessel without recommendations is controversial - it takes no account of the evolution of the clause or the differences between its literal formulation and that of the corresponding classification clause for hull and machinery insurance cover.
The Court of Genoa has considered the problematic issue of the liability of classification societies, holding Lloyd's Register liable for damages caused to time charterers as a result of the detention of their vessel. This is the first time that an Italian court has specifically addressed the issue.
The Rome Court of Appeal recently set an important precedent on the distinction between a charterparty contract and a contract of carriage of goods by sea. The case involved an Italian tank vessel which sank. After rejecting the allegation that the owner had been negligent, the court examined the terms of the time charterparty to decide whether it amounted to a contract of carriage of goods by sea.