Mr Nicolas Contis

Nicolas Contis



Expert reports drawn up in a non-adversarial manner and principle of adversarial proceedings
France | 02 March 2021

In a notable decision, the first civil chamber of the Supreme Court held that under the Code of Civil Procedure, a judge cannot refuse to examine expert reports which disfavour a party that was not called on or represented during the expertise proceedings. With this decision, the Supreme Court has confirmed a precedent by which expert reports drawn up in disregard of the adversarial principle may retain their probative force.

Clarification of rules on fast-track appeal proceedings
France | 22 December 2020

The Code of Civil Procedure provides for fast-track proceedings before the courts of appeal in certain cases. In such cases, the appellant must notify their declaration of appeal and file their submission within specific timeframes, failing which the declaration of appeal will be declared void. The Court of Cassation recently specified the rules which apply where an appellant notifies their declaration of appeal and submission before receiving the notice of hearing.

Members of independent administrative authorities can be recused under principle of impartiality
France | 29 September 2020

In a June 2020 decision, the first civil chamber of the Supreme Court recognised the admissibility of a petition for a risk of lack of impartiality against a member of an independent administrative authority – namely, the president of the French Polynesian Competition Authority. By way of this decision, the Supreme Court confirmed its earlier decision that an independent administrative authority with the power to impose penalties must comply with Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights.

COVID-19: government emergency measures to mitigate pandemic's effects on legal delays
France | 16 June 2020

Emergency Law 2020-290 of 23 March 2020 enabled the government to legislate by virtue of government orders in various areas. In application of the law, the government adopted and published 25 orders to remedy the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, the government adopted Order 2020-306 concerning the extension of deadlines which expire during the health emergency period and the adjustment of procedures during the same period.

Civil procedure reform and compulsory representation principle
France | 28 April 2020

Until recently, in written procedures regarding civil matters, the parties had to be represented by a lawyer, whereas in oral procedures, representation was optional and the parties could represent themselves before a court. This practice has changed following the major reform of French civil procedure, which has amended, among many other procedural rules, those concerning mandatory representation in first-instance courts.

Civil procedure reform: new rules on provisional execution of judgments
France | 04 February 2020

In France, provisional execution allows a judgment to be executed before it acquires the status of res judicata. Until recently, provisional execution could generally be invoked only if the requiring party submitted a request to this effect and the judge expressly granted such request. This practice has changed following the major reform of French civil procedure, which has amended the procedural rules concerning the provisional execution of judgments.

Civil procedure reform: appeal proceedings regarding questions of jurisdiction clarified
France | 17 September 2019

The Supreme Court recently ended a conflict between the appeal courts and clarified that for any decision rendered exclusively on a jurisdictional issue, the party that wants to appeal such decision must file a motivated statement for appeal and, more importantly, appeal to the first president of the relevant appeal court through a formal request in order to obtain a fixed date on which the case will be heard. Otherwise, the statement of appeal will be declared void.

International Chamber of Paris Commercial Court and International Chamber of Paris Court of Appeal: one year later
France | 02 July 2019

In 2018 two protocols establishing the rules applicable to proceedings brought before the modernised International Chamber of the Paris Commercial Court and the new International Chamber of the Paris Court of Appeal (collectively the ICCP) were signed. Although the ICCP have rendered several decisions in 2019, there is still no sufficient hindsight to make a first assessment on the ICCP's functioning.

Supreme Court rules on jurisdiction over protective measures
France | 13 November 2018

Two recent Supreme Court decisions regarding cross-border litigation have clarified that the French courts will have jurisdiction over forensic examinations ordered as protective measures by a French judge, although foreign judges will likely have jurisdiction over the substance of the matter. In light of these judgments, the French courts are likely to order forensic measures if they are closer to the facts of the dispute even if the matter will be settled by a foreign court.

Seizure of foreign state-owned assets: waiver of immunity from jurisdiction must be both express and specific
France | 27 February 2018

In the framework of the world-famous case between the Republic of Congo and Commisimpex, the Supreme Court recently established a new rule to be followed in order to proceed to a seizure when an immunity from jurisdiction applies. The decision demonstrates the importance of applying the same rules of law in relation to immunity from jurisdiction or execution – to such an extent that the court justified the retroactive application of the Sapin II Law.

Supreme Court confirms its restrictive approach to estoppel principle
France | 28 November 2017

A recent Supreme Court decision confirms that the estoppel principle is recognised under French law as a general principle and is now a procedural tool in the hands of litigators. However, the decision also revives the debate about the principle's true effectiveness before the French courts.

'Fixed' matter or matter 'to be fixed': the subtleties of abatement of a suit
France | 15 August 2017

Under French law, proceedings may be terminated on several procedural grounds. One of them is the abatement of a suit, which results in the termination of the proceedings without considering the merits of the case. In two decisions issued on December 16 2016, the Supreme Court specified the subtle conditions applicable to the enforcement of such a drastic procedural penalty.

Protection of US legally privileged documents in French civil discovery procedure
France | 02 May 2017

As with many other national laws, French law recognises parties' right to gather evidence at the pre-trial stage by way of a discovery procedure (ie, judges will require opponents to disclose files and documents under certain circumstances). However, the confidentiality of targeted files and documents can be a major obstacle to the success of such claims. The Supreme Court recently held that confidentiality provided by US legal privilege is unlikely to frustrate a discovery action undertaken in France.

Court jurisdiction over public enforcement of competition law claims
France | 31 January 2017

The Supreme Court recently answered the question of whether a party that is summoned by the Ministry of Economy before a French court over a competition law infringement is entitled to contend, by way of defence, that the court in question has no jurisdiction over the claim. The judgment provides a clear rule of law: competition claims between private parties remain freely arbitrated, but actions by the ministry cannot be submitted, in any case, to arbitration.

Res judicata and occurrence of new facts
France | 25 October 2016

The commercial branch of the Supreme Court recently renewed its application of the res judicata principle when the situation acknowledged by the first-instance judge was modified by subsequent events. The court confirmed the first-instance decision despite opposition from the seller of a shop, who argued that the res judicata principle barred the admissibility of the purchaser's action grounded between the same parties on the same object and cause.

The nullification of judicial expert reports
France | 31 May 2016

A party wanting to preserve or establish evidence of facts on which the solution of a dispute might depend can ask the judge before the trial commences to appoint a judicial expert to draft a report on the matter. If the other party is dissatisfied with the report's findings, it may want to seek nullification of the report. The conditions for nullification are strictly defined by case law and although the effects can be powerful, they can also be disappointing.

Taking evidence overseas within French proceedings
France | 02 February 2016

The quest for evidence in civil and commercial litigation is often a major strategic challenge, as the quality and strength of evidence provided by the parties may determine the outcome of the trial. When a party involved in French proceedings needs to collect information or documentation abroad which is crucial to the success of its claims, it can rely on two legal instruments, depending on where the evidence is situated.