Rokas Law Firm


Rokas was established in the beginning of 1977 and has developed into an international network of independent law and business consulting firms which provide services in major business and financial centers across Central and SE European countries, including, Athens, Belgrade, Bucharest, Podgorica, Prague, Sarajevo, Skopje, Sofia, Thessaloniki, Tirana and Zagreb.

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Energy & Natural Resources

Amendments to Electricity Balancing Rulebook
Greece | 17 May 2021

The Regulatory Authority for Energy has issued a decision amending the Electricity Balancing Rulebook and establishing measures aimed at ensuring its proper functioning and effective competition in the market. The amendments concern the setting of limits in the submission of offers for upward and downward energy balancing and the suspension of the possibility of balancing service providers submitting balancing electricity offers with negative prices.

Regulatory Authority for Energy approves gas distribution network development for rest of Greece
Greece | 10 May 2021

Regulatory Authority for Energy Decision 1615/2020 – which approves the Public Gas Distribution Networks SA 2021 to 2025 development programme for the distribution network for the rest of Greece (ie, areas of Greece other than Attica, Thessalonica and Thessaly) – was recently published in the Official Journal. The approved programme is largely similar to the previously approved 2020 to 2025 programme, except for the length of the network in West Macedonia.

Regulatory Authority for Energy issues guarantees manual for Electricity TSO Code
Greece | 29 March 2021

In 2020 the Regulatory Authority for Energy issued Decision 1426/2020 – the guarantees manual for the Electricity Transmission System Operation Code. According to Section 11.3 of the code, all persons which are registered in the Electricity Transmission System Operator Register must provide sufficient guarantees throughout the duration of the power transmission operator transactions contract for the fulfilment of their obligations under said contract.

Acceleration of granting of permanent connection offers to RES stations
Greece | 22 March 2021

In December 2020 a new ministerial decision was published which, among other things, amended the ministerial decision concerning the determination of a special framework of priority for the granting of permanent connection offers to renewable energy source and high-efficiency cogeneration of heat and power plants by the electricity network operator. This new legislative tool is orientated towards the fast evaluation of pending applications and the simplification of the relevant procedure as a whole.

Declaration of readiness for connection of RES stations to network
Greece | 15 March 2021

In October 2020 Law 4736/2020 concerning the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment was published in the Official Gazette. According to Article 20 of the law, a new article has been added to Law 4416/2016 regarding the declaration of readiness for the connection of renewable energy source stations to the distribution network or transmission system.

New cycle of competitive procedures for operational support
Greece | 08 March 2021

The Regulatory Authority for Energy recently announced the commencement of the competitive procedure for determining the reference price for renewable energy source project operational support. This new cycle was launched by Decision 1648/2020 on a joint competitive bidding procedure for the selection of the photovoltaic and wind plants which will be included in the operation support scheme. Applications to participate in the auctions may be submitted until 22 March 2021.

Regulating RES storage
Greece | 01 March 2021

The Ministry of Environment and Energy recently issued a decision on the formation of a working group which will prepare a proposal for the ministry on adopting the legal framework for the development and participation of electricity storage units in the electricity markets and the capacity mechanism. The decision appointed the working group members and provided that they may invite others to participate or provide an opinion.

New Spatial and Urban Planning Law affects onshore and offshore RES projects
Greece | 22 February 2021

Law 4759/2020 on the Modernisation of Spatial and Urban Planning Legislation and Other Provisions was recently enacted. For renewable energy source (RES) projects in particular, the implications of this new law are twofold as it includes provisions that modify the legal framework for the development and financing of RES projects and provisions which affect where such projects will be sited. This article examines the main regulatory changes introduced regarding the siting of such projects.

New Licensing Code regulating RES production certificates takes effect
Greece | 15 February 2021

In December 2020 the new Licensing Code, which regulates renewable energy source (RES) production certificates, was published in the Official Journal. The code aims to implement the new RES licensing procedure and was published on the day on which the first submission round for the issuance of these certificates started. This last-minute regulation caused uncertainty for interested applicants regarding the application procedure and the required documents.

Fiscal and structural changes introduced to RES market
Greece | 08 February 2021

The Ministry of Environment and Energy recently announced the adoption of fiscal and structural measures aiming to secure the adequacy of funds on the special account for financing the renewable energy source (RES) projects operating in Greece and ensure the gradual adaptation of the RES industry to the recently launched operation of the electricity target model.

Stricter conditions for strategic investments in RES
Greece | 25 January 2021

A new law has amended the conditions for the approval of, and narrowed down the renewable energy source (RES) projects which may be accepted as, investments of strategic interest. Henceforth, only investments of at least €50 million in projects which use technological innovations to produce electricity from an RES and have a common connection point to the grid and investments of at least €100 million in projects with a common connection point to the grid may be approved as strategic investments.

Law for the Promotion of Electric Mobility provides economic incentives to purchase e-vehicles
Greece | 14 December 2020

In July 2020 Parliament enacted the Law for the Promotion of Electric Mobility which, among other things, introduced numerous tax and other incentives for the promotion of e-vehicles. Natural and legal persons are entitled to subventions from the purchase price of e-vehicles, depending on certain criteria. The aim of the law is to provide economic incentives to buyers to purchase e-vehicles and promote electric mobility.

Extension of natural gas distribution network
Greece | 07 December 2020

In May and July 2020 the Regulatory Authority for Energy approved three five-year development plans for the extension of the natural gas distribution network: the natural gas network development plans for Thessalonica and Thessaly; the rest of Greece; and Attica. In September 2020 the Public Gas Distribution Networks launched two competitive procedures for the construction of networks in the East Macedonia and Thrace region, which attracted significant interest in Greece.

New transitional flexibility remuneration mechanism and registration of flexibility service providers
Greece | 30 November 2020

In July 2020 a ministerial decision of the Ministry of Environment and Energy was published in the Official Gazette. The decision encompasses the new transitional flexibility remuneration mechanism (ie, the fee paid to selected electricity providers for the provision of the flexibility service). The mechanism is now in force and will remain so until 31 March 2021 or the date of implementation of the long-term compensation mechanism regarding the electricity system's power sufficiency, whichever occurs sooner.

Energy exchange update
Greece | 23 November 2020

Following the completion of the Regulatory Energy Agency's (RAE's) recent consultation, the RAE designated 1 November 2020 as the effective date of operation of the intraday and day-ahead markets and the balancing market (electricity markets). Further, the RAE recently issued a series of delegated decisions in order to regulate access to the electricity markets, clearing members' obligations and risk management measures in both the electricity markets and the balancing market.

Implementation of new regulatory framework regarding RES production licensing
Greece | 16 November 2020

In May 2020 Law 4685/2020 on the modernisation and simplification of, among other things, renewable energy source (RES) production licensing was enacted. By virtue of Law 4722/2020, the next submission round for new applications for RES producer certificates has been scheduled for December 2020. Meanwhile, the Greek Regulatory Authority has been busy issuing RES producer certificates for which applications have been pending since before the enactment of Law 4685/2020.

Modernisation of environmental law and simplification of RES production licensing
Greece | 25 May 2020

Parliament recently passed a law modernising environmental legislation and harmonising Greek law with EU Directives 2018/844 and 2019/692. The law contains new legislative measures which will significantly amend, standardise and simplify the current licensing procedure for renewable energy power plants – particularly the procedure for obtaining a renewable energy source production licence and an environmental approval.

RES update
Greece | 02 March 2020

Greece recently adopted its first National Plan for Energy and Climate, which regulates all energy sectors. The plan defines Greece's energy and climate targets up until 2030, as well as priority policies and implementation measures which should help to both develop and reform the energy sector by 2050. The plan will also facilitate the shaping of the country's energy and climate strategy for the years 2030 to 2050.

Update on DEPA privatisation
Greece | 24 February 2020

Under the new law on the liberalisation of the energy market, the Public Natural Gas Company (DEPA) will be spun off into three distinct undertakings: DEPA Infrastructure, DEPA Commercial and DEPA International Projects. The privatisation tender is organised by the Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund. Parties intending to participate in the tender are requested to meet various legal, financial and technical requirements.

New regulation on liberalisation of Greek energy market
Greece | 27 January 2020

Law 4643/2019 on the liberalisation of the Greek energy market, the modernisation of the Public Power Corporation, the privatisation of the Public Natural Gas Company and the support of the renewable energy sector was recently published in the Official Journal. The new legal provisions aim, among other things, to facilitate and expedite the licensing procedure for numerous power production applications already pending before the Regulatory Energy Agency.

Liberalisation of energy market: DEPA privatisation
Greece | 20 January 2020

Under the new law on the liberalisation of the energy market, the Public Natural Gas Company (DEPA) will be spun off into three distinct undertakings, two of which will be completely privatised. This transformation will significantly alter DEPA's unbundling and privatisation scheme, which was adopted in March 2019 (ie, before the elections and respective reconfigurations in Parliament and government).

RES sector reform – regulatory update
Greece | 18 November 2019

The renewable energy sources (RES) sector of the Greek energy market is undergoing continuous and significant reform. Among other changes, the Hellenic Energy Exchange has commenced operations, RES producers now participate in the day-ahead market and the Greek islands' renewables sector has been expanded.

Schedule for competitive procedures in 2019 and 2020
Greece | 05 August 2019

The minister of environment and energy recently amended the competitive procedures for determining operating state aid granted as feed-in premiums for 2019 and 2020. Further, the latest competitive procedures resulted in significant price reductions for photovoltaic (PV) and wind projects. However, owners of small PV plants have claimed that they have been disadvantaged by the merging of all PV plant categories into one.

First joint wind and solar competitive tender procedures in April and May 2019
Greece | 01 April 2019

In April and May 2019 solar and wind renewable energy systems producers will compete for the first time for operating state aid and a place in the Greek energy market in a joint competitive tender procedure organised by the Energy Regulatory Authority. Despite certain doubts, the market signs indicate that a significant number of players and capacities plan to participate in the upcoming joint competition.

Natural gas distribution and supply sector is undergoing reform
Greece | 11 March 2019

A draft law on the further unbundling and privatisation of the public natural gas company DEPA was recently submitted to Parliament. The draft law proposes that DEPA be divided into two companies: DEPA Infrastructure and DEPA Trade. The main opposition to the draft law centres on the fact that the state will retain a 14% stake in DEPA Trade, which some have argued will allow the state to retain too much control and potentially veto strategic policy issues.

Overview of RES state aid scheme implementation
Greece | 14 January 2019

The second regular wind and photovoltaic (PV) state aid auction held in December 2018 resulted in the award of all of the capacities for two of the three categories of renewable energy system project, a significant (up to 26%) reduction in the reference prices compared with the initial reference prices and the cancellation of the auction for large PV projects by the Regulatory Energy Authority due to insufficient competition.

RES update – competitive procedures for FiP
Greece | 19 November 2018

The new renewable energy sources state aid scheme was introduced in Greece in 2016 by way of Law 4414/2016. On 18 October 2018 the Regulatory Energy Agency launched the second regular competitive procedures for determining the reference prices of state aid for wind and solar energy producers in Greece, which offers a total tender capacity of 423 megawatts. The first regular competition procedures were conducted on 2 July 2018.

Privatisation of energy companies
Greece | 08 October 2018

Pursuant to the commitments undertaken by the Greek state after the first memorandum of understanding between the Hellenic Republic, the member states of the European Union, the Monetary Fund and the European Central Bank was signed, the privatisation of energy companies in Greece has significantly progressed. The Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund – the legal entity entrusted with implementing the privatisation programme of the Hellenic Republic – has undertaken a number of relevant projects.

First (regular) solar and wind competitive procedures projects initiated
Greece | 02 July 2018

Greece began reorganising its renewable energy system state aid scheme in 2016 by enacting Law 4414/2016. The minister of environment and energy has provided the legal framework for implementing the law and organising the competitive procedures to determine the reference prices for certain projects receiving operating aid. The first regular competitive procedures were initiated in April 2018, following the Regulatory Energy Agency's launch of three tenders. The tenders will be implemented in two phases.

Divestment of PPC's lignite-fired plants
Greece | 21 May 2018

Parliament recently passed a law regulating the procedure for the divestment of approximately 40% of Public Power Corporation's (PPC) lignite-fired production units and lignite exploitation rights. The aim of the law is to increase competition in the Greek electricity market. Currently, over 60% of the electricity produced in Greece is generated through the combustion of locally extracted lignite, while PPC accounts for 98% of all lignite production in the country.

Investing in RES sector
Greece | 12 March 2018

The Greek energy sector is expected to expand over the next few years as a result of, among other things, the optimisation of the energy mix – which consists of a reduction in fossil fuel-generated electricity and an increase in energy from renewable energy sources (RES) – and the liberalisation of the electricity and natural gas markets. Greece is also expected to create energy investment opportunities due to the availability of RES potential in the country and ongoing substantial infrastructure projects.

Energy Exchange operations expected in 2018
Greece | 15 January 2018

During 2017, a group of experts worked on the modelling and organisation of the Energy Exchange with the intention that it would be established and begin operating in the first half of 2018. As such, the Ministry of Energy and Environment recently presented, through a public consultation, the draft Energy Exchange Law, which would amend the Target Model Law and the Energy Law.

NOME auctions – enhancing competition in electricity supply market
Greece | 06 November 2017

In 2016 Law 4389/2016 introduced the sale by auction of electricity forward products with physical delivery by the Greek vertically integrated Public Power Corporation (PPC) to eligible electricity suppliers. The purpose of these auctions is to reduce the PPC's retail market share in the interconnected system, enhance competition and provide better quality products and lower prices to consumers.

New international hydrocarbons offshore tenders launched for Crete and Ionian Sea
Greece | 09 October 2017

Two international tenders granting exploration and exploitation rights for the block areas of Southwest and West Crete, as well as the Ionian Sea, were recently published in the Official Gazette. This publication follows the expressions of interest by the consortium Total-ExxonMobil-Hellenic Petroleum for Southwest and West Crete and Energean Oil and Gas for the Ionian Sea. The expected announcement by the Official Journal of the European Union will also allow other interested stakeholders to submit offers.

Privatisation tender for 66% of Greek gas TSO relaunched
Greece | 31 July 2017

Decision 51 of the Government Council for Economic Policy was recently published, approving the process for a new international tender for the acquisition of a 66% stake in the national natural gas transmission system operator. The new tender was launched by the Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund on June 26 2017 and will remain open to receive respective expressions of interest until August 7 2017.

Draft Law on Energy Communities
Greece | 10 July 2017

The Ministry of Environment and Energy recently launched a public consultation on the draft Law on Energy Communities. Given the large range of activities and numerous incentives that the draft law proposes for energy communities, these communities may become an important vehicle for developing business activities and increasing energy efficiency in local communities.

Electricity market harmonisation with target model
Greece | 27 March 2017

After several years of preparation and analysis of different solutions for the reform of the electricity wholesale market and its harmonisation with the European Union, a new law has been enacted to implement the agreement on fiscal goals and corrective reform. Before the law was enacted, studies of the Greek electricity market were carried out while the Regulatory Energy Agency conducted public consultations on the implementation of the target model.

Recent developments in natural gas sector
Greece | 06 February 2017

Unlike in most other EU countries, natural gas became part of the Greek market only recently following the launch of organised commercial import of natural gas at the end of 1996. Until then, gas was mainly used for electricity generation. Although the Greek supply and transmission of natural gas has not yet reached maturity, there have been significant attempts to liberalise the market in the past decade, particularly in the past couple of years.

New support scheme for RES and CHP producers
Greece | 14 November 2016

Law 4414/2016, which reforms the renewable resources (RES) and co-generated heat and power (CHP) support scheme, was recently published in the Government Gazette. The law aims to bring the existing support mechanism for RES electricity and CHP into line with EU guidelines and address the insufficient funds in the RES account. Further, it aims to integrate RES electricity and CHP with the interconnected system and develop a sustainable investment environment for the future.

Parliament approves electricity market reform
Greece | 04 July 2016

Parliament recently approved a law that introduces significant changes to the Greek electricity market. The law aims to reduce the share of the Power Public Corporation (PPC) in the electricity supply market, unbundle the transmission system operator from the PPC (while partially privatising it) and regulate the temporary capacity mechanism.