Schoenherr is a leading full service law firm in Central and Eastern Europe. About 300 professionals service national and international clients from our offices in Austria, Belgium/EU, and throughout the entire CEE region. Operating in a rapidly evolving environment, we are a dynamic and innovative firm with an effective blend of experienced lawyers and young talent. As one of the first international law firms to move into CEE, we have grown to be one of the largest firms in the region. Our offices and country desks provide comprehensive coverage of CEE, allowing us to offer solutions that perfectly fit the given industry, jurisdiction and company. Schoenherr is in compliance with the respective local legal standards and conduct rules in all countries; therefore, the local firm name may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

Show more


Competition & Antitrust

CPC activity during COVID-19 crisis
Bulgaria | 23 April 2020

The government recently declared a national state of emergency as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. This article outlines the impact of this declaration on Commission for the Protection of Competition (CPC) activities, including in relation to CPC operations and competition law enforcement.

CPC introduces simplified and more extensive merger filing guidelines
Bulgaria | 30 January 2020

The Commission for the Protection of Competition (CPC) recently introduced new merger filing guidelines. The former guidelines did not differentiate between transactions, despite potential competition concerns. The new guidelines address this practical problem and provide for two types of filing: a simplified merger filing for mergers that are unlikely to raise competition concerns and a more extensive merger filing for concentrations which are expected to significantly affect the relevant markets.

CEZ Bulgaria not for sale
Bulgaria | 19 December 2019

CEZ Bulgaria is not for sale. This seems to be the (implicit) conclusion of the Commission on the Protection of Competition's (CPC's) decision prohibiting Eurohold Bulgaria AD's acquisition of all of CEZ Group's Bulgarian assets. The CPC's decision came after a fast-track and in-depth proceeding (Phase II), which ended only 14 days after it was formally opened.

CPC fines snack distributor for unfair solicitation of customers
Bulgaria | 17 October 2019

The Commission on the Protection of Competition (CPC) recently fined a snack distributor 4% of its annual turnover for the unfair solicitation of customers. The commission relied on its earlier practice to determine whether a promotional campaign launched by the distributor had infringed the Competition Protection Act. This decision is a helpful reminder that in order to avoid competition law violations, companies must carefully consider which prizes to offer in promotional campaigns.

Funeral agency fined for not complying with earlier CPC decision
Bulgaria | 25 July 2019

The Commission on the Protection of Competition (CPC) recently issued a decision in which it penalised the funeral agency Elida MG EOOD (formerly Pokoy-1945 EOOD) for failing to comply with an earlier CPC decision. Such cases in which an undertaking fails to comply with a CPC decision and is therefore fined again are extremely rare due to the substantial pecuniary penalties which may be imposed on violators.

CPC clears Domuschievi brothers' acquisition of Nova TV
Bulgaria | 09 May 2019

The Commission for the Protection of Competition (CPC) recently cleared the acquisition of Nova Broadcasting Group AD by Advance Media Group EAD, which is owned by the well-known Bulgarian businesspeople Kiril and Georgi Domuschievi. The CPC was adamant that the proposed acquisition would not cause anti-competitive effects in the TV distribution market because the two companies are not direct competitors; rather, they have a de facto vertical relationship.

Metro penalised for unfair comparative advertising campaign
Bulgaria | 28 February 2019

The Commission for the Protection of Competition recently penalised Metro Cash & Carry for conducting an unfair comparative advertising campaign. Lidl Bulgaria EOOD had claimed that Metro's advertising campaign unfairly encouraged Lidl customers to shop at Metro instead. The case is a helpful reminder that companies designing advertising campaigns should carefully consider any direct or indirect references to their competitors, particularly if such references have negative connotations.

CPC fines A1 Bulgaria for cancelling agreement
Bulgaria | 13 December 2018

The Commission for the Protection of Competition (CPC) recently imposed a Lev840,340 fine on A1 Bulgaria for cancelling a partnership agreement with its main commercial representative, Handy-Tel EOOD. The CPC held that the cancellation had effectively violated Article 37a(1) of the Protection of Competition Act, which prohibits the abuse of a dominant position when contracting.

CPC penalises Speedy AD for failing to provide complete and accurate information
Bulgaria | 25 October 2018

The Commission for the Protection of Competition (CPC) recently approved the acquisition of Rapido Express and Logistics OOD by its competitor Speedy AD. However, at the same time, the CPC penalised Speedy AD for failing to provide complete and accurate information in its concentration notification which the commission deemed materially and substantially important for evaluating the deal.

CPC issues first decisions prohibiting concentrations
Bulgaria | 16 August 2018

The Commission for the Protection of Competition (CPC) recently prohibited two concentrations in politically sensitive sectors (media and energy). The CPC's decisions were widely criticised for lacking valid economic arguments. Further, in both decisions the CPC limited its legal arguments to several paragraphs and failed to clarify how acquiring non-competitors (or at least non-major competitors) could strengthen the resulting group's dominant position and thus impede competition.

CPC deems minimum hotel accommodation prices anti-competitive
Bulgaria | 14 June 2018

The Ministry of Tourism recently proposed the introduction of minimum prices for sites categorised as 'accommodation places'. However, the Commission for Protection of Competition (CPC) opined on the proposal's compliance with competition rules. The CPC highlighted the fact that accommodation prices depend on many factors other than category, which makes it practically impossible to set a minimum price for a category that would be adequate in every case.

Private damages directive implemented in law
Bulgaria | 15 March 2018

The Act for Amendment and Supplementation of the Competition Protection Act was recently promulgated in the State Gazette. The new act follows the scope of the EU Damages Directive and applies to infringements of the Competition Protection Act regarding prohibited agreements and abuse of dominance.

Commission fines Laptop.BG for video blog content
Bulgaria | 11 January 2018

The Commission for the Protection of Competition recently fined Laptop.BG for unfair practices in the form of contradicting genuine practices. An investigation was opened at the request of Golden Green Stone Group EOOD, the owner of online shopping brand eVarna, which claimed that a blogger had performed prohibited comparative advertising in favour of Laptop.BG, thereby damaging eVarna's reputation and consciously redirecting consumers to Laptop BG's online platforms.

Competition Commission sends statements of objection for abuse of dominant position
Bulgaria | 02 November 2017

The Competition Commission recently sent statements of objection for abuse of dominant position by three electricity distribution and supply companies. According to the commission, allegations were made that the companies had traded information regarding customers switching from the regulated market to the liberal market in order to purposely stall the necessary paperwork.

Competition Commission fines Sofia Commodity Exchange for unfair competition
Bulgaria | 26 October 2017

A recent competition breach by the Sofia Commodity Exchange AD resulted in a 0% fee for purchasers (ie, members of the exchange). The Supreme Administrative Court and the Competition Commission both held that the lack of fees had placed purchasers in a more favourable position, leading to unfair competition which contradicted good-faith practices. In addition to a fine based on the net turnover of sales, the commission ordered the immediate suspension of the exchange's breaching activities.

CPC opinion on draft act for amendment of Administrative Procedure Code
Bulgaria | 17 August 2017

The Commission for the Protection of Competition (CPC) recently adopted an opinion on the draft act for the amendment of the Administrative Procedure Code. The CPC supports the introduction of electronic justice which, in its view, will increase the efficiency of the judiciary system and prevent unnecessary delays. However, it disagrees with the increase in state fees and the proposal that the state fee for cassation is to be defined as a percentage of the imposed penalty.

Remedies imposed on fuel companies following cartel investigations
Bulgaria | 25 May 2017

For the second time in less than five years the Commission for the Protection of Competition has opened investigation proceedings regarding prohibited agreements and concerted practices against the major fuel companies in Bulgaria and closed them without issuing penalties. An investigation was launched and the commission found that the retail price of some petrol companies in Bulgaria does not always follow the wholesale price and producers' prices.

Abuse of stronger bargaining power
Bulgaria | 16 February 2017

The Competition Protection Commission recently fined Kaufland Bulgaria EOOD for abuse of stronger bargaining power regarding its supplier, Keti-94 OOD. This is the second commission decision relating to abuse of bargaining power – a concept introduced into Bulgarian legislation in July 2015. The commission found Kaufland's breach to be severe and imposed a 7% fine generated from Kaufland's turnover on the market for sales of low-priced alcohol.

Commission for Protection of Competition conducts sector analysis of insurance market
Bulgaria | 15 December 2016

The Commission for Protection of Competition recently conducted a sector analysis of the competition environment in Bulgaria's insurance market. The main purpose of the report was to provide insight into the insurance market and specify potential competition issues. It is expected that strategies, programmes and plans to improve the insurance environment will be adopted in the future by the relevant bodies.

First decision on 'abuse of stronger bargaining power'
Bulgaria | 22 September 2016

The Commission for the Protection of Competition has fined Siemens EOOD for abuse of stronger bargaining power. Given the abstract wording of the term 'abuse of stronger bargaining position' in the Competition Protection Act and the lack of any methodology or instructions regarding its application, the commission's decision should be considered as initial guidance on how it will interpret the term in future.

Election of new Competition Protection Commission panel
Bulgaria | 28 July 2016

The National Assembly has elected a new Competition Protection Commission panel. Despite the old panel's mandate coming to an end, the commission has showed an impressive level of antitrust activity. In May 2016 the commission issued several statements of objection against key players in the electricity production, wholesale and distribution markets, as well as opening an investigation into prohibited practices against a number of retail chains.

Competition Protection Commission issues statement of objection to electricity distributor
Bulgaria | 12 May 2016

The Competition Protection Commission recently issued a statement of objection to Energo Pro Grid AD for abuse of its dominant position. The commission's investigation focused on Energo Pro's refusal to connect Kayko OOD's production site to the electricity distribution grid. However, in a press release, the commission did not clarify why Energo Pro's refusal to connect Kayko is considered to be unjustified.

Abuse of dominant position – commission issues statement of objection
Bulgaria | 11 February 2016

The Competition Protection Commission recently issued a statement of objection against Aurubis Bulgaria AD and Aurubis AG. The commission has accused Aurubis of abuse of its dominant position in the Bulgarian market for the production and sale of sulphuric acid and for discriminating against its Bulgarian customers in favour of international clients.

Competition Protection Commission penalises Uber for unfair acts
Bulgaria | 22 October 2015

The Competition Protection Commission (CPC) recently fined Uber BV and Rasier Opеrаtions BV for unfair trade practices committed through their provision of the UberX service and ordered them to cease the unfair practices. The CPC decision established that both companies had offered taxi services that failed to comply with the legal requirements for taxi transport, giving them an unfair advantage over their competitors.

Competition Protection Commission opens pharmaceutical sector inquiry
Bulgaria | 30 July 2015

The Competition Protection Commission recently announced that it had opened a pharmaceutical sector inquiry. According to the announcement, the subject of the inquiry is the retail trade of pharmaceuticals which are paid (fully or partially) by the National Health Insurance Fund. If the commission finds any individual anti-competitive behaviour, it will open antitrust proceedings against the undertakings involved.

Commission issues statement of objection to telecoms company
Bulgaria | 02 April 2015

The Competition Protection Commission recently issued a statement of objection to Bulgarian Telecommunication Company (BTC) for abuse of dominant position. Proceedings were commenced based on BTS's unilateral cancellation of an agreement for termination of telecommunication networks. BTC has the right to oppose the statement of objection within 30 days.

Competition Protection Commission investigates insurance sector
Bulgaria | 22 January 2015

The Competition Protection Commission recently initiated an inquiry into Bulgaria's insurance sector, which will define competition problems and the reasons for them. The commission will publish its findings, which should be used as a platform for public discussion of the identified problems.

Commission conducts dawn raids for suspected bid rigging
Bulgaria | 06 November 2014

Following a complaint by the Ministry of Finance, the Competition Protection Commission opened an investigation against three companies suspected of involvement in a bid-rigging cartel. During dawn raids at offices of two of the companies, the commission discovered information relating to price formation which gave it reason to suspect that the companies had entered into a prohibited agreement.

Commission fines public natural gas supplier for abuse of dominant position
Bulgaria | 04 September 2014

The Competition Protection Commission has fined Bulgargaz over €11 million for abuse of dominant position. Bulgargaz conducted different exploitative practices, including forcing clients to extend the term of their contracts without the option to negotiate the contract provisions.

Commission accuses electricity distributors of abuse of dominant position
Bulgaria | 03 July 2014

The Competition Protection Commission recently accused Bulgaria's three energy distributors of abuse of dominant position. According to the commission, the companies determined and imposed unjustified high prices for access to their low-voltage distribution networks for television, internet and telephone services, thus restricting competition on the relevant markets.

Public supplier of natural gas accused of abusive market behaviour
Bulgaria | 17 April 2014

The Competition Protection Commission recently presented a statement of objection to Bulgargas EAD. The commission claimed that Bulgargas had abused its dominant position in the natural gas supply market by imposing unfair trade conditions in the contracts for public supply. It held that Bulgargas's market behaviour was exploitative towards its customers.

Competition Protection Commission fines Energy Pro Grids
Bulgaria | 20 February 2014

The Competition Protection Commission recently fined Energy Pro Grids AD – the electricity distribution company for Northeastern Bulgaria – for abuse of dominant position. The commission held that Energy Pro Grids' conduct impeded competition on the upstream renewable energy electricity market.

Competition Protection Commission imposes further penalty on electricity sector
Bulgaria | 12 December 2013

The Competition Protection Commission recently imposed a penalty on Energy Pro Grids AD for disproportionate management of production capacities. The commission found that Energo Pro was obliged to limit electricity production when so ordered by the system operator. However, Energo Pro allocated the limitations using non-transparent and discriminatory criteria, putting other electricity producers at a disadvantage.

Fines for price fixing on sunflower oil market
Bulgaria | 10 October 2013

The Competition Protection Commission recently closed two files and imposed fines on the suppliers and distributors of sunflower oil for end consumption in Bulgaria. Both files were opened in a sector inquiry, during which the commission found retail price maintenance provisions in some distribution agreements.

Competition Protection Commission sector inquiry into electricity market
Bulgaria | 08 August 2013

The Competition Protection Commission recently launched a sector inquiry into the Bulgarian electricity market, following protests from citizens about high electricity prices. The aim of the inquiry is to analyse the legal framework of the electricity sector and its application, as well as the structure and organisation of each level of the electricity distribution chain.

Fine for abuse of dominant position in energy sector
Bulgaria | 06 June 2013

The Competition Protection Commission recently fined Energo-Pro Sales AD for abuse of its dominant position after it terminated the electricity supply to a water utility due to non-payment of due amounts for electricity used. The commission stated that the extreme measure of terminating supply should not have been taken, given the social importance of the services provided by the utility.

Energy sector on Competition Protection Commission's radar
Bulgaria | 18 April 2013

The Commission for the Protection of Competition recently announced that it had extended the scope of the ongoing sector inquiry into the supply and distribution of gas in the production, trade, transmission and electricity supply markets. The commission will analyse the level of transparency in price formation and identify possible vertical restraints.

Commission adopts corporate compliance programme guidelines
Bulgaria | 21 February 2013

The Competition Protection Commission recently adopted guidelines regarding corporate compliance programmes. The commission encourages businesses to implement compliance programmes to avoid the risks of non-compliance with competition law. However, a compliance programme will not be considered as a mitigating factor when calculating the penalty for competition law infringement.

Commission imposes highest-ever penalty for prohibited agreements
Bulgaria | 10 January 2013

The Competition Protection Commission recently imposed the highest penalty in its history for prohibited agreements between the distributor of Hyundai in Bulgaria, Industrial Commerce OOD, and authorised Hyundai/Industrial Commerce dealers. The penalties were imposed at a maximum amount allowed by the Competition Protection Act.

Antitrust investigation in wheat, flour and bread markets
Bulgaria | 01 November 2012

The Competition Protection Commission recently announced the findings of its inquiry into the vertically related markets of wheat, wheat flour and mass wheat bread. Its investigation revealed that while increases in the wholesale price of flour were related to increases in the price of wheat, the respective increases did not always correspond, suggesting a prohibited agreement.

Competition Protection Commission approves retail chains' proposed commitments
Bulgaria | 16 August 2012

In a recent decision the Competition Protection Commission approved proposals for commitments from some of the largest retail chains in Bulgaria which had previously been suspected of prohibited practices. The commission found that the proposals contained specific measures which may prevent the restriction of competition in the relevant markets.

Regulation adopted for remedies in merger control proceedings
Bulgaria | 14 June 2012

The Competition Protection Commission has adopted a regulation on remedies for the restoration of effective competition when it has serious doubts about whether a notified transaction may establish or strengthen a dominant position and opens an in-depth phase of the merger control proceedings. With the adoption of the regulation, the commission aims to make merger control proceedings more transparent.

Competition Protection Commission: exchange of information between competitors
Bulgaria | 15 March 2012

The Competition Protection Commission recently adopted, for the first time, guidelines regarding the exchange of information between competitors. In addition, the commission lists in the guidelines examples of the unlawful exchange of information on the basis of its own practice, the practice of the European Commission and that of member states' anti-monopoly authorities.

Competition Protection Commission accuses travel agencies of bid rigging
Bulgaria | 19 January 2012

The Competition Protection Commission recently announced that a statement of objection had been submitted to three Bulgarian travel agencies for infringement of the cartel prohibition under Article 15, Paragraph 1 of the Competition Protection Act. The three companies are accused of having manipulated the public procurement procedure for the provision of airline tickets for business trips.

Commission clears hotels and tour operators of anti-competitive behaviour
Bulgaria | 20 October 2011

Following an investigation into the hotel sector in which it considered market characteristics including supply and demand, price dynamics, the market shares of hotels within each category in different municipalities, the contractual relationships between hotels and tour operators and the role of trade associations, the Competition Protection Commission has held that operators in the sector have not engaged in anti-competitive behaviour.

Competition Protection Commission completes fuel sector inquiry
Bulgaria | 13 October 2011

The Competition Protection Commission has completed an inquiry into the Bulgarian fuel sector. The investigation focused on commercial relationships between participants in the market for the production, import and sale of gasoline and diesel. The inquiry also aimed to identiy legal and administrative barriers to market entry which arose under the Bulgarian legal framework.

Competition Protection Commission opens two new sector inquiries
Bulgaria | 16 June 2011

The Competition Protection Commission has initiated two new sector inquiries. As a reaction to a dramatic increase in fuel prices, the commission recently started sector inquiries into the market for the production and realisation of gas oil and diesel. It has also initiated an investigation into the inter-related grain, wheat flour and bread markets following an increase in bread prices.

Competition Protection Commission investigates milk sector
Bulgaria | 17 March 2011

According to the Competition Protection Commission, the Bulgarian milk market suffers from similar problems to the equivalent markets in other EU member states. Following a recent investigation, the commission cited the conclusions of the European Commission and its recommendation that these problems be solved by implementing changes to EU common agriculture policy and the applicable national and EU competition laws.

Competition Protection Commission investigates retail chains
Bulgaria | 10 March 2011

In July 2009 the Competition Protection Commission initiated procedures against the largest retail chains in Bulgaria for suspected prohibited practices. The procedures were opened after the commission received several indications from the Bulgarian Confederation of Employers and Industrialists that the chains were engaged in anti-competitive activity.

Commission for the Protection of Competition: recent merger reviews
Bulgaria | 16 December 2010

Since the beginning of 2010 the Commission for the Protection of Competition has issued 25 clearance decisions on notification and five decisions in which it imposed penalties for non-notification and premature implementation of concentrations. Among others, the commission approved two concentrations in the supermarket retail sector and one in the mobile telecommunications sector.

Competition authority increases sector inquiries
Bulgaria | 04 November 2010

The Commission for the Protection of Competition has increased its activity in the field of sector inquiries. This development in commission policy was expected, since the new Law on the Protection of Competition was adopted at the end of 2008 to regulate in more detail the commission's power to conduct sector inquiries.

Commitments in antitrust proceedings
Bulgaria | 08 July 2010

The Commission on the Protection of Competition adopted the Rules on the Examination of Proposals for Commitments under the Law on the Protection of Competition. The new competition act stipulates that investigations have two phases. At the end of the first phase, if there is sufficient evidence of an infringement, the commission will prepare a statement of objections and start an in-depth investigation.

Appeal court quashes commission's cartel decisions
Bulgaria | 25 March 2010

During 2007 and 2008 the Commission for Protection of Competition conducted six cartel investigations in different sectors. Following five of the investigations the commission imposed fines for price fixing and the exchange of sensitive commercial information. Two of these decisions have been upheld by the courts and are now binding.