New York Governor Andrew Cuomo recently signed into law a pair of bills establishing new requirements for businesses that process certain personal information relating to New York residents. The changes include expanding the scope of information covered by New York's data breach notification law. Businesses maintaining the private information of New York residents will now be required to develop reasonable safeguards within their organisation as part of a new reasonable security requirement.
The US Department of Justice (DOJ) has issued a new guidance memorandum entitled "Evaluating a Business Organisation's Inability to Pay a Criminal Fine or Criminal Monetary Penalty". This memorandum aims to provide greater clarity, transparency and uniformity as to how the DOJ's Criminal Division evaluates companies' claims that they cannot pay a proposed criminal fine or monetary penalty.
The California attorney general recently released proposed regulations to implement certain provisions of the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA). The attorney general also released a notice of proposed rulemaking and an initial statement of reasons that provide drafting insights and outline considerations that will likely continue to guide the rulemaking process. The proposed regulations provide clarifications for businesses and consumers in five key CCPA areas, including privacy notice requirements.
In a legislative environment charitably described as challenging, the fact that the Senate recently passed cybersecurity legislation by unanimous consent is noteworthy and highlights the bipartisan nature of this issue. The bill requires the newly-formed Department of Homeland Security teams to provide assistance to public and private entities, on request, to prepare for and respond to cyber-related incidents, including (among other things) restoring services after a cyber incident.
Few Italian precedents have considered the plausibility of a second medical use invention as a potential requirement for patent validity. However, a recent decision has clearly stated for the first time and as a matter of principle that the plausibility of an invention does not need the support of experimental data; rather, credible information based on a sound scientific and technical rationale is sufficient.
The California legislature recently debated several amendments to the California Consumer Privacy Act, eventually passing five bills which now await the governor's signature. Collectively, these bills do not provide the sweeping changes sought by businesses. Instead, the amendments make minor tweaks and postpone for one year some of the more challenging requirements. The passed bills address a range of topics, including providing for a partial, temporary one-year exception for applicant and employee data.
The production of single-use plastics has increased exponentially in recent decades and in Mexico the volume of single-use plastic waste now exceeds the country's recycling capabilities. In response to growing concern over the effects that plastic waste may have on the environment, a series of legislative changes have recently been implemented. Companies should keep track of any waste-related initiatives introduced at the state and federal levels and prepare for upcoming changes to their obligations.
The Mexican courts have issued several precedents to eradicate the existence of usury, allowing judges to discretionally reduce interest rates agreed by the parties. However, some of these precedents contradict each other as to whether the usury prohibition applies to default interest. As such, the First Chamber of the Supreme Court recently issued a decision to clarify these inconsistencies.
The New York governor recently signed into law a pair of bills establishing new requirements for businesses that process certain personal information relating to New York residents. The changes include expanding the scope of information covered by New York's data breach notification law and defining 'breaches' to include incidents involving unauthorised access to covered information, even where the information is not acquired.
The cultivation and industrial use of hemp in Italy has a long tradition and recent changes to the law have led to a revival in this regard. While a law enacted in 2016 promotes hemp cultivation as a means to preserve biodiversity and reduce the environmental impact of agriculture, hemp-derived products for human consumption are still subject to restrictions. A recent Supreme Court judgment has had the last word on the legality of cannabis.
The administration recently issued its National Development Plan 2019-2024, which – despite the previous administration's plans – does not mention cybersecurity. Although there are still hopes that cybersecurity will be addressed in the soon-to-be-released Communications and Transports Sectorial Programme 2019-2024, it appears that the present administration has no intention of implementing a cybersecurity strategy.
Digital collection (CoDi) is the latest electronic payment method developed by the Mexican Central Bank, designed to reduce the use of cash and promote competition, while incorporating larger sections of the population into the formal financial sector. It seems that Mexico is moving forward in financial technologies, such as CoDi, and using these developments to promote larger inclusion, competition and transparency for every sector in the country.
In a long-awaited decision, the Supreme Court was expected to provide greater clarity on the extent to which litigants can challenge the Federal Communications Commission's Telephone Consumer Protection Act interpretations in private litigation. However, instead of deciding that issue, the court vacated the Fourth Circuit's ruling and remanded the case for further development.
The Energy Regulatory Commission has received clearance from the Federal Commission for Regulatory Improvement to publish the general administrative provisions (GAPs) that set out the Guidelines for the Statistic Registry of Commercial Transactions Arising from Regulated Activities Performed with Natural Gas and Oil. The GAPs establish the natural gas and oil registry system and provide new reporting obligations for permit holders.
Senate Bill 220 was recently signed into law, making Nevada the first state to join California in granting consumers the right to opt out of the sale of their personal information. However, the new privacy law is significantly narrower than the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA). For example, it applies only to online activities, defines 'consumer' and 'sale' more narrowly and includes broad exceptions for financial institutions subject to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Chair Ajit Pai recently announced plans to open a rulemaking proceeding to take a fresh look at the 5.9GHz band. In this new proceeding, the FCC will consider whether and how to allow sharing in the 5.9GHz band between dedicated short-range communication, gigabit Wi-Fi and cellular vehicle-to-everything technologies.
The National Agency for Industrial Safety and the Protection of the Environment in the Hydrocarbons Sector recently published NOM-001-ASEA-2019 (NOM-001) in the Federal Official Gazette. NOM-001's main aims are to establish criteria to classify the special types of waste produced in the hydrocarbons sector and establish which of these must be subject to a management plan, as well as determine the contents of special management and hazardous waste management plans.
The Federal Electricity Commission recently published draft terms of reference for a new tender procedure in which 50,000km of two strands of dark fibre will be allocated for the provision of free internet services to all citizens under the so-called 'Internet for All' project. Specialist opinions on the project's feasibility have been mixed, and the president has stated that if no winner is published in the near future, he will create a government agency to provide internet services throughout the country.
The government recently approved a legislative decree on clinical trials that introduces changes to several provisions of the existing national regulation on clinical trials. At present, clinical data obtained in Italy from non-profit clinical trials cannot be used for commercial purposes. Moreover, pharmaceutical companies funding non-profit research cannot claim ownership of data and results obtained from such research, irrespective of any agreement with the non-profit entity. This may now change.
Several legislative proposals seeking to amend the California Consumer Privacy Act are moving forward following a recent hearing before the California Assembly's Committee on Privacy and Consumer Protection in which the bills were approved. The bills will advance to the assembly's Appropriations Committee before being voted on by the full assembly and potentially advancing to the California State Senate for consideration.