Brazil updates

Arbitration & ADR

Contributed by Carvalho, Machado e Timm Advogados
Superior Court of Justice recognises competence of arbitral tribunal in biggest recovery case
  • Brazil
  • 13 December 2018

The Superior Court of Justice recently confirmed the jurisdiction of an arbitral tribunal constituted before the Market Arbitration Chamber to render a decision connected to a company that had filed a lawsuit for a recovery plan before the competent court of law. In addition to taking a pro-arbitral stance on an important national case, this decision reinforces the jurisdictional nature of arbitration and solidifies the case law on conflicts of competence.

Superior Court of Justice rules on arbitration and piercing of corporate veil
  • Brazil
  • 25 October 2018

A recent Superior Court of Justice decision has broadened the interpretation of consent to an arbitration agreement to include economic groups, which could – by implication – pierce the corporate veil in such cases and extend arbitral jurisdiction to non-signatory parties. The decision sets a precedent for this issue and will serve as a parameter for future decisions by both the lower courts and the Superior Court of Justice.

Sao Paulo State Appellate Court decides on interpretation of Article 4(2) of Arbitration Act
  • Brazil
  • 27 September 2018

The Sao Paulo State Appellate Court recently rendered an important precedent on the interpretation of Article 4(2) of the Arbitration Act. The appellate court ultimately dismissed the franchisee's appeal, despite arguments that, among other things, the franchise agreement entered into by the parties was a contract by adhesion, pursuant to Article 54 of the Consumer Protection Code. As such, the arbitration clause was invalid because it did not follow the requirements contained in Article 4(2) of the Arbitration Act.

Superior Court of Justice rules on consequences of successful challenges to arbitral awards
  • Brazil
  • 13 September 2018

The Superior Court of Justice recently decided on the consequences of a successful application to set aside an arbitral award. The court's decision resulted from a declaration by the state courts that the nullity of arbitral awards is provided for in Article 33 of the Arbitration Act. Notably, this case was considered under the original version of the Arbitration Act (ie, before its 2015 amendment) due to the date on which the lawsuit had been filed.

Superior Court of Justice decides on pre-arbitral interim measure for production of expert evidence
  • Brazil
  • 12 April 2018

The Superior Court of Justice recently held that an arbitral tribunal has jurisdiction to (re)assess a pre-arbitral interim measure relating to an agreement containing an arbitration clause that was previously filed before the judiciary as soon as it is constituted. The controversy brought before the court concerned a recurring issue in the field of arbitration: the intersections between state courts and arbitral tribunals, especially when dealing with the establishment of competent jurisdiction.


Aviation

Contributed by Basch & Rameh
Changes to registration requirements: why aircraft financiers should be on alert
  • Brazil
  • 20 June 2018

A tax regulation that was promulgated in 2016 has taken effect in ways that are now affecting aircraft lessors and lenders to Brazilian carriers, including by imposing requirements concerning the identification of lessor entities' ultimate beneficial owners and increasing the document disclosure requirements on lessors and lenders in cross-border aircraft finance transactions. While the full impact of the new rules is still unclear, lessors and lenders to Brazilian operators should prepare to comply.

Aircraft interchange agreements
  • Brazil
  • 03 January 2018

Interchange agreements are relatively new and have been increasingly used by commercial aircraft operators in Brazil. In response to industry requests, the Brazilian Civil Aviation Agency and the Brazilian Aeronautical Registry recently clarified several applicable rules. Due to their novelty, interchange agreements are not always understood in the industry. While such agreements share some similarities with interline and code-share agreements, they have important distinctions.

Modernising the Aeronautical Registry: electronic filing now available
  • Brazil
  • 09 August 2017

For the past few months, the Brazilian Aeronautical Registry has experimented with a new electronic filing system that allows parties to file documents electronically 24 hours a day, seven days a week. This system is now operative for documents relating to commercial aircraft. Documents relating to private aircraft, business aircraft and helicopters are still being filed physically. The new electronic system is expected to become available to them during the second half of 2017.

Brazil designates Ireland as tax haven: impact on aircraft finance
  • Brazil
  • 22 February 2017

In September 2016 the Brazilian Revenue Service unexpectedly promulgated a change in its treatment of Ireland, which had the potential to wreak havoc on the aircraft leasing sector for the entire country. After four weeks of considerable uncertainty, the changes – as they apply to commercial aircraft leases – were suspended. While the clarifications temporarily resolve the initial concerns regarding commercial aircraft leases, they provide no relief for other important sectors, such as the air taxi sector.

Interchange and foreign capital investment limits for airlines – changes to legislation
  • Brazil
  • 17 August 2016

As the revision to the Aeronautical Code is taking longer than expected, the president promulgated interim legal measures earlier in 2016, including one change particularly relevant to air carriers – restrictions on foreign investment in airlines. Although ultimately vetoed, these measures still merit attention, as they are indicative of future legislation.


Banking

Contributed by BMA Barbosa Müssnich Aragão
New rules for credit fintech companies
  • Brazil
  • 27 July 2018

The National Monetary Council recently issued Resolution 4,656, regulating credit fintech companies. The resolution will allow direct credit companies and interpersonal loan companies to conduct loan and financial operations through electronic platforms. Although it is still uncertain how the market will react to the new rules, the industry is optimistic, considering the significant developments in this area that have been observed in other markets.

CADE and Central Bank sign memorandum for further cooperation
  • Brazil
  • 13 April 2018

The Administrative Council for Economic Defence (CADE) and the Central Bank recently entered into a memorandum of understanding. This initiative strengthens the relationship between the two authorities and promotes greater cooperation among them for the analysis of merger cases and anti-competitive practices by financial institutions. It also represents an important step forward, signalling the end to the longstanding dispute between CADE and the Central Bank over jurisdictional conflicts.


Competition & Antitrust

Contributed by BMA Barbosa Müssnich Aragão
Reshuffled CADE adopts new approach for IP cases
  • Brazil
  • 29 November 2018

In recent years, Brazil's antitrust authority – the Administrative Council for Economic Defence (CADE) – has undergone a reshuffling in terms of the composition of both the Administrative Tribunal (comprising commissioners) and the General Superintendence. Among the issues that have come before the reshuffled CADE, two investigations are particularly notable because they reveal a new trend in its approach to IP rights.

Abuse of dominance enforcement – what's next?
  • Brazil
  • 14 June 2018

Since the start of 2018, following a period in which it focused on the persecution of cartels, the Administrative Council for Economic Defence (CADE) has directed more resources towards concluding pending abuse of dominance matters and occasionally launching new dominance cases. In so doing, the most pertinent question has become: how will CADE deal with dominance in future?

CADE and Central Bank sign memorandum for further cooperation
  • Brazil
  • 12 April 2018

The Administrative Council for Economic Defence (CADE) and the Central Bank recently entered into a memorandum of understanding. This initiative strengthens the relationship between the two authorities and promotes greater cooperation among them for the analysis of merger cases and anti-competitive practices by financial institutions. It also represents an important step forward, signalling the end to the longstanding dispute between CADE and the Central Bank over jurisdictional conflicts.

Ministry of Finance restructures advocacy agency in order to promote competitiveness
  • Brazil
  • 15 February 2018

The Ministry of Finance recently issued Decree 9,299/2018, which partially changed the structure of the Brazilian Competition Policy System (BCPS). The BCPS undertakes three main activities: preventive control, repressive control and competition advocacy. The restructuring focuses on the promotion of competition advocacy in the country.

Recent trends in leniency agreements demonstrate increasingly mature approach
  • Brazil
  • 08 May 2014

As in other jurisdictions, the Brazilian authorities have been striving to build a well-respected leniency programme. Evidence from recent years suggests that before allowing a company to benefit from its leniency programme, the Administrative Council for Economic Defence has become more demanding, requesting strong evidence of the existence of collusion, as well as proof of any (potential) impact in the country.


Employment & Benefits

Contributed by Mattos Filho, Veiga Filho, Marrey Jr e Quiroga Advogados
First impressions: labour reform one year on
  • Brazil
  • 07 November 2018

Almost one year on from the enactment of Law 13467/17 (the labour reform), early feedback suggests that the reform has proved to be an effective and positive change. In particular, the reform has increased the use of remote workers, reduced the imbalance of power between employers and employees, made union contributions voluntary and reduced the number of labour-related lawsuits.

Supreme Court upholds labour reform's ban on mandatory union contributions
  • Brazil
  • 12 September 2018

When the labour reform came into force, it amended the provision requiring employees to pay annual contributions to relevant unions, instead making union contributions optional. After the reform was enacted, more than 15,000 lawsuits were filed to challenge union contribution-related matters. The Supreme Court recently ruled that the end of mandatory union contributions was constitutional.

Arbitration now permitted for employment disputes
  • Brazil
  • 18 July 2018

The recent labour and employment reform enacted in Brazil has introduced important changes to labour and employment relations. One of the principal changes is the introduction of arbitration for the resolution of employment disputes. Although the changing law requires a change of mindset, employers should take advantage of it and begin to consider the possibility of instituting arbitration for certain employment contracts.

How to avoid overtime costs: overview of compensatory time off agreements
  • Brazil
  • 23 May 2018

In Brazil, employees who work overtime are entitled to statutory premium pay at one-and-one-half times the regular rate. In the past, the courts often voided compensatory time off agreements and granted overtime payment claims to employees on the grounds that their employer had failed to comply with legal requirements. However, the 2017 labour reform introduced more flexible requirements, which should curb litigation on compensatory time off agreements and encourage their use.

Impact of labour reform on awards paid to employees
  • Brazil
  • 07 February 2018

The discussion regarding the legal nature of awards is not new to Brazilian labour courts, especially because amounts paid as awards could be considered salary, obliging the employer to include the award in the employee's salary and pay him or her every month or include this amount as a basis for determining the employee's labour rights. The legislative branch has tried to clarify this matter, defining the legal nature of awards, as well as the concept and legal criteria for their application.