USA updates

Arbitration & ADR

Contributed by Norton Rose Fulbright
COVID-19: AAA-ICDR's approach to arbitration
  • USA
  • 07 May 2020

Existing dispute resolution proceedings are inevitably experiencing the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak. Where possible, hearings have been delayed or relocated. However, with many lockdowns extended for the foreseeable future, some hearings will still need to be held. Notably, the American Arbitration Association acknowledges that these are appropriate times to permit (and indeed require) the use of viable alternatives to in-person hearings.

New York Appellate Division confirms narrow scope of manifest disregard doctrine
  • USA
  • 30 May 2019

The New York Appellate Division has reaffirmed that the manifest disregard doctrine is a "severely limited… doctrine of last resort" that requires more than a mere error of law to warrant vacating an arbitral award. This case involved the acquisition contracts between Daesang and NutraSweet, under which NutraSweet could rescind the deal if it was sued for antitrust law violations. After NutraSweet exercised this right, Daesang commenced an arbitration proceeding for breach of contract.

Disclosure in international arbitration: using US courts to obtain discovery for non-US proceedings
  • USA
  • 23 May 2019

Unbeknown to many, Section 1782 of Title 28 of the US Code permits parties to obtain discovery in the United States in aid of non-US legal proceedings, including – in some instances – international arbitrations. Such discovery can include documents and sworn testimony (eg, depositions). In conducting an arbitration seated outside the United States (or other non-US legal proceedings), it is useful to understand the mechanics, requirements and key issues of Section 1782 discovery.

California loosens restrictions on counsel in international arbitrations
  • USA
  • 23 August 2018

California Governor Jerry Brown recently signed into law Senate Bill (SB) 766, Representation by Foreign and Out-of-State Attorneys. The bill, which was passed 69-to-zero by the legislature, clarifies that foreign (ie, not licensed in the United States) and out-of-state (ie, licensed in a US jurisdiction, but not in California) attorneys can represent parties in international arbitrations in California, subject to certain conditions. SB 766 will take effect on 1 January 2019.


Aviation

Contributed by Cozen O'Connor
DOT issues new guidance regarding airlines' obligation to provide passenger refunds
  • USA
  • 27 May 2020

Passengers who no longer wish to travel due to COVID-19 concerns or who have had their flights cancelled are demanding refunds from airlines. Airlines, on the other hand, are grappling with a difficult truth: if they refund all tickets, including those purchased under the condition of being non-refundable or those cancelled by a passenger, this will result in negative cash balances that will lead to bankruptcy.

Trump announces that REAL ID compliance deadline is postponed due to COVID-19 pandemic
  • USA
  • 20 May 2020

President Trump has announced that the US Department of Homeland Security will delay the 1 October 2020 deadline for compliance with the REAL ID Act 2005 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The postponement is welcome news for US airlines and the US travel industry, which had grown increasingly concerned (well before COVID-19) that a significant number of US nationals had not yet obtained a REAL ID.

DOT to impose minimum air service obligations on carriers receiving CARES Act financial assistance
  • USA
  • 13 May 2020

The Department of Transportation (DOT) has issued an order proposing parameters for implementing the authority granted to the secretary of transportation under the Coronavirus Aid, Recovery and Economic Security Act. The order sets out the DOT's expectations regarding the required service levels. This article provides a summary of the key provisions.

Considerations when aviation travel is a necessity
  • USA
  • 13 May 2020

Although the idea of aircraft travel may currently be the last thing on many people's minds, for some people, access to aviation travel for business or personal reasons may be necessary even during these difficult times. Moreover, access to business jet travel in lieu of commercial flights will become even more in demand, as commercial airlines reduce the number of available flights, curtail routes or shut down operations altogether.

FAA grants airlines relief from airport slot use restrictions due to COVID-19
  • USA
  • 29 April 2020

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has announced that US and foreign carriers that cancel or reduce service at US slot-controlled airports will not forfeit their slots. The FAA is waiving its 80% minimum use requirement for slots at certain US slot-controlled airports until 24 October 2020. Foreign carriers' retention of their slots at US airports is contingent on reciprocity.


Banking

Contributed by Shearman & Sterling LLP
LIBOR transition: Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to stop accepting LIBOR and begin accepting SOFR
  • USA
  • 28 February 2020

The Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation recently announced that they will stop accepting London Interbank Offered Rate-indexed adjustable-rate mortgages by the end of 2020. Additionally, the two government sponsored agencies announced that they will soon accept mortgages tied to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate later in 2020.


Capital Markets

Contributed by Shearman & Sterling LLP
Debt buyback and liability management considerations
  • USA
  • 19 May 2020

As the markets continue to react to the COVID-19 pandemic, the trading prices of many corporate loans and bonds have fallen dramatically. As a result, many companies (or their private equity sponsors) are looking at repurchasing their debt at a discount. In addition, many companies are concerned that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will result in covenant breaches or other defaults and are engaging in discussions with their lenders and investors to obtain needed modifications to their debt agreements.

2019 SEC regulatory summary: advisers and funds
  • USA
  • 28 January 2020

To mark the new year, registered investment advisers and funds should take a look back at the activity undertaken by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and its staff during 2019 and carefully consider steps to be taken to implement new and amended regulations adopted by the SEC throughout the year. The start of a new year is also a good time to evaluate what remains on the SEC's regulatory agenda.

FINRA: suitability and sales practices remain an issue
  • USA
  • 21 January 2020

The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) recently released its 2019 Report on Examination Findings and Observations. The report intends to reflect key findings and observations identified in FINRA's recent examinations of broker-dealers. The report also describes practices that FINRA has deemed to be effective and that could help firms to improve their compliance and risk management programmes.

SEC charges Switzerland-based dealer for selling US investors unregistered SBS for bitcoins
  • USA
  • 14 January 2020

The Securities and Exchange Commission recently charged a Switzerland-based securities dealer for offering and selling unregistered security-based swaps to US investors using bitcoins and for failing to transact its swaps on a registered national exchange. This case illustrates that the use of new technology and terminology does not exempt investment-product dealers from having to comply with US federal securities laws.

Supreme Court will decide courts' authority to order disgorgement in SEC enforcement cases
  • USA
  • 03 December 2019

The Supreme Court recently granted a writ of certiorari to address whether the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) may obtain disgorgement in civil injunctive actions filed in the federal courts. How the court resolves this question may have a significant impact not only on the SEC's enforcement programme, but also on a wide array of other federal regulators that rely on courts invoking similar equitable authority to fashion remedies.


Competition & Antitrust

Contributed by Norton Rose Fulbright
Antitrust agencies' COVID-19 response – interview
  • USA
  • 23 April 2020

In the wake of COVID-19, public officials across the United States have expressed a willingness to prosecute price gougers and companies that facilitate sales of goods with inflated prices. In this video, Vic Domen, government antitrust investigations and prosecutions lawyer and partner at Norton Rose Fulbright, discusses various consumer protection issues that are arising in the United States as a result of COVID-19.

Antitrust agencies' COVID-19 response: federal and state authorities warn against price gouging
  • USA
  • 16 April 2020

In the wake of COVID-19, some sellers of essential goods and services have tried to greatly increase the cost of their products to take advantage of increased demand. However, sellers should be aware that public officials across the United States have expressed a willingness to prosecute price gougers and companies that facilitate sales of goods with inflated prices. State attorneys general are at the forefront of investigating and prosecuting instances of price gouging.

Antitrust agencies respond to COVID-19 challenges in merger reviews
  • USA
  • 09 April 2020

As the United States reacts and adjusts to the developing COVID-19 situation, the two federal antitrust agencies – the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice Antitrust Division – have revised certain rules and procedures relating to their civil merger investigation processes to address these new challenges. Although both agencies have shifted most of their personnel to remote working arrangements, agency staff have demonstrated a willingness to be reasonable and accommodating.

Collaboration and catastrophe: antitrust laws in face of COVID-19
  • USA
  • 02 April 2020

While antitrust and consumer protection laws provide flexibility for firms to respond to changing market conditions, such as those created by the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to remember that certain conduct will remain prohibited by antitrust and consumer protection laws no matter the circumstances.

Understanding FTC's monetary equitable remedies under Section 13(b) for antitrust violations
  • USA
  • 13 February 2020

Until recently, the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC's) ability to seek monetary equitable remedies (particularly disgorgement and restitution) for alleged antitrust violations went virtually unchallenged. However, the most recent appellate case that interprets the FTC's monetary equitable remedies under Section 13(b) of the FTC Act leaves open many questions about the FTC's ability to seek monetary equitable remedies in antitrust cases pursuant to Section 13(b).