Latest updates

Squeeze-outs of minority shareholders: methods and pitfalls
  • Romania
  • May 07 2018

The squeeze-out of minority shareholders in closely held companies is a controversial issue made more complex by the large number of Romanian companies with minority shareholders. Historically, state-owned companies were privatised through the management-employee buy-out method, which allowed employees to receive shares in former state-owned companies. As such stakes were often granular, many minority shareholders are dormant or even unaware of their participation in these companies.

Secret voting in general shareholders' meetings
  • Romania
  • February 26 2018

The corporate functioning rules for joint stock companies have been repeatedly altered by Romanian legislation, especially in relation to the governing structures of companies, such as shareholders' assemblies and management bodies. However, some situations create problems in practice or generate inconsistencies within jurisprudence. One such example is the use of secret voting in general shareholders' meetings.

Share capital increases – a practical solution
  • Romania
  • January 29 2018

Creditors and investors assess the level of a company's net assets when deciding whether to grant a loan to or invest in that company. Further, the Companies Law requires companies to maintain a certain level of net assets. However, an increasing number of companies on the Romanian market are struggling with low net assets to total asset ratios. Luckily, such companies can redress their situation through a share capital increase, which is a straightforward procedure.

Managers under trade law: how will Constitutional Court rule?
  • Austria
  • January 15 2018

The Higher Administrative Court recently requested that the Constitutional Court repeal Section 39(2) of the Trade Act, as it infringes fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution. Austrian legal practitioners are already eagerly awaiting this judgment, which is expected to be issued during 2018.

EU Directive 2017/828 – cornerstone of increased shareholder engagement?
  • European Union
  • November 27 2017

EU Directive 2017/828, amending Directive 2007/36/EC as regards the encouragement of long-term shareholder engagement, was recently published. The directive provides several options for member states when transposing the directive into national law. Depending on how the respective national legislature make use of these options, there will be minor or major changes to the national law.

Beneficial Ownership Register to be introduced in Austria
  • Austria
  • September 04 2017

Parliament recently passed a new law on the registration of beneficial owners of Austrian legal entities. After obtaining the necessary approval of the Austrian federal states, the law is expected to enter into force on January 15 2018. In disclosing the relevant information on beneficial owners, the register aims to detect and prevent money laundering, especially with regard to complex corporate structures, holding companies or private foundations and trusts.

Participation rights as alternative investment and equity financing instruments
  • Austria
  • June 05 2017

The typical way to invest in an Austrian company is by way of a capital increase. However, there are formalities with respect to limited liability companies (LLCs) – the most popular legal form in Austria – that sometimes make investing in LLCs unattractive or burdensome. To eliminate the concerns associated with these transactions, Austrian law provides a suitable, but widely unknown, alternative investment instrument: participation rights.

Simplified procedure for foundation of standard LLCs
  • Austria
  • May 29 2017

The Austrian Parliament recently passed an amendment to the law on limited liability companies (LLCs) aimed at simplifying the foundation of a special kind of LLC. The purpose of the changes – and the simplifications associated with them – have been hotly debated.

Further clarification on apparent authority
  • Austria
  • March 20 2017

In a recent decision the Supreme Court held, in line with prior case law, that apparent authority requires the circumstances on which the assumption of authority is based to be induced by the principal, not by the representative. Although this is not new, the verdict has helped to clarify the boundaries of apparent authority. Certain key requirements must be met in order to establish apparent authority and thus allow the counterparty to rely on it.

Boost your start-up with an advisory board – points to consider
  • Austria
  • March 13 2017

Most start-ups are founded by first-time founders directly after graduation, with the founding team typically consisting of no more than two members. Because of this, founders are often unequipped to deal with the business challenges that they will face. Founders thus often make mistakes, especially at the start. Having an advisory board with qualified and trusted members can help a start­-up to transform its potential into successes and create a foundation for sustainable development.

No-assignment clauses in Austrian contracts
  • Austria
  • December 19 2016

The rationale behind no-assignment clauses is that they allow the rights, claims and receivables to remain with the parties that have negotiated and executed the underlying agreement, rather than allowing a counterparty to sell or otherwise transfer its claims to an unrelated party. In order to be effective, a no-assignment clause must have been expressly negotiated and agreed and, with due consideration of all circumstances, must not grossly disadvantage the creditor.

Brexit: consequences for Austrian limited companies
  • Austria
  • September 12 2016

While there is substantial uncertainty surrounding the consequences of Brexit, it can be assumed that it will have far-reaching consequences for limited companies registered on the Austrian Commercial Register. In particular, the freedom of establishment principle will no longer apply to relationships between Austria and the United Kingdom, which will have a significant effect on existing limited companies in Austria.

Civil Code amendment considers special nature of shareholder agreements
  • Austria
  • August 08 2016

The legislature recently responded to criticism regarding the 2014 amendment to the Civil Code by considering the special purpose of shareholder agreements and their qualification as undisclosed partnerships. The latest version of the Civil Code now includes an exemption for undisclosed partnerships. All shareholder agreements may once again contain a waiver of ordinary termination rights in line with common practice and the typical goals of these agreements.

Management and supervisory board liability under new business judgement rule
  • Austria
  • June 13 2016

Modelled on the German Stock Corporation Act, a 2015 reform of the Austrian Criminal Code introduced a business judgement rule into the Austrian Stock Corporation Act and the Limited Liability Companies Act. The rule applies to management and supervisory board members and will change boards' decision-making processes – in particular, for complex, risky, far-reaching, resource-consuming and strategically important matters.

Consequences of Civil Code amendment for termination of shareholder agreements
  • Austria
  • April 18 2016

A recent amendment to the Civil Code will have a dramatic effect on shareholder agreements, as shareholders of a company established for an indefinite term can no longer waive ordinary termination rights. As any party to a civil law partnership can now terminate the partnership, parties should either conclude a termination waiver for a fixed period or conclude the agreement for a fixed period (with renewal options).

Start-ups – common legal issues
  • Austria
  • June 08 2015

Austria recently experienced a significant boom in its start-up sector and has since produced some major international players. That said, starting a business in Austria requires an understanding of the legal system, including common legal risks (eg, founder and shareholder liability), the requirements for founding a limited liability company, adhering to arm's-length principles and establishing exit scenarios.

Agreements on shareholder contributions are not subject to formal requirements
  • Austria
  • March 02 2015

The Supreme Court recently held that agreements between shareholders on voluntary capital contributions to a company may be agreed outside the articles of association and are subject to no formal requirements. The decision ensures that shareholders of stock corporations and limited liability companies have flexibility when agreeing on capital contributions outside the articles of association.

Compliance management systems – Austrian standard and ISO guideline compared
  • Austria
  • January 19 2015

Compliance presents many challenges for organisations. So far, compliance has not met the global standards which provide guidance on the implementation of compliance management systems (CMSs). In 2013 the Austrian Standards Institute released its own CMS standard, which provides guidance on the implementation of CMSs. This update compares the Austrian standard with the 2014 International Standardisation Organisation guideline.

Validity of payment of cash consideration to public limited liability company
  • Austria
  • June 09 2014

The Supreme Court recently considered the validity of the payment of a cash consideration to a public limited liability company in the course of an increase in its stated capital. The ruling highlights that business transactions that have a substantive and temporal connection with a formal increase of the stated capital must be made under the disclosure and examination rules for contributions in kind.

Reductions in minimum share capital for limited liability companies abolished
  • Austria
  • March 31 2014

Amendments to Austria's federal tax law – which, among other things, have revised the Limited Liability Companies Act – recently came into force. The minimum share capital of a limited liability company (GmbH) has been raised again to the former level of €35,000. Out of the share capital to be contributed in cash, at least €17,500 must once again be paid in when founding the GmbH.